Quick Dictionary - C++
What is a class in C++?
A class in C++ is a blueprint or template that defines the structure and behavior of objects. It encapsulates data and functions together
What is an object in C++ Sort?
An object in C++ is an instance of a class. It represents a specific entity that can hold its own data and perform operations defined in the class.
What is a constructor in C++?
A constructor in C++ is a special member function of a class that is automatically called when an object of the class is created. It initializes the object's data members.
What is a destructor in C++ ?
A destructor in C++ is a special member function of a class that is automatically called when an object is destroyed or goes out of scope. It cleans up any resources held by the object.
What is a pointer?
A pointer in C++ is a variable that holds the memory address of another variable. It allows indirect access to the value or the memory location of a variable.
What is a reference?
A reference in C++ is an alias or an alternative name for an existing variable. It provides a way to access and manipulate the original variable without creating a new copy.
What is namespace?
A namespace in C++ is a mechanism for organizing and avoiding naming conflicts in code. It provides a scope where identifiers (such as classes, functions, or variables) can be defined.
What is template?
A template in C++ is a generic programming feature that allows the creation of functions or classes that can work with different types. It enables code reuse and flexibility.
What is Inheritance?
Inheritance in C++ is a mechanism that allows a class to inherit properties (data members and member functions) from another class. It promotes code reuse and supports the "is-a" relationship.
What is Polymorphism?
Polymorphism in C++ refers to the ability of objects to take on multiple forms. It allows different objects to respond differently to the same function call based on their specific types or classes.
What is Encapsulation?
Encapsulation in C++ is the bundling of data and related functions together within a class. It hides the implementation details and provides access to the data through public interfaces.
What is Abstraction?
Abstraction in C++ is the process of simplifying complex systems by focusing on essential features while hiding unnecessary details. It allows users to work with high-level concepts without worrying about implementation.
What is the scope?
Scope in C++ defines the region or context in which a variable, function, or other identifiers are recognized and accessible. It determines the visibility and lifetime of the identifier.
What is Constant?
A constant in C++ is a value that cannot be modified or changed during program execution. It provides a way to define and use fixed values that remain constant throughout the program.
What is Operator?
An operator in C++ is a symbol that represents a specific operation or action to be performed on one or more operands. It allows manipulation of variables and values in expressions.
What is a header guard?
A header guard in C++ is a preprocessor directive that prevents a header file from being included multiple times in the same translation unit. It avoids compilation errors due to duplicate definitions.
What is Sizeof Operator?
The `sizeof` operator in C++ is used to determine the size, in bytes, of a data type or a variable. It provides the total memory occupied by the object or type
What is Static Variable?
A static variable in C++ is a variable that retains its value throughout the program's execution. It is shared among all instances of a class or remains local to a function, depending on where it is declared.
What is Static Member Function?
A static member function in C++ is a function that belongs to a class rather than to an instance of the class. It can be called without creating an object of the class and can access only static data members.
What is const pointer?
A const pointer in C++ is a pointer that points to a constant value. It means that the value being pointed to cannot be modified through the const pointer, although the pointer itself can be reassigned.
What is Friend class or Function?
A friend class or function in C++ is a mechanism that grants access to private and protected members of a class to another class or function. It allows the friend class or function to bypass encapsulation and access private data.
What is Virtual Function?
A virtual function in C++ is a member function of a base class that can be overridden by a function with the same name in a derived class. It enables dynamic polymorphism, where the appropriate function is called based on the actual type of the object.
What is Pure Virtual Function?
A pure virtual function in C++ is a virtual function declared in a base class that has no implementation in the base class. It serves as a placeholder, and any derived class must override this function with its implementation.
What is Derived Class?
A derived class in C++ is a class that inherits properties (data members and member functions) from a base class. It extends or specializes the base class, adding new features or modifying existing ones.
What is Base Class?
A base class in C++ is a class from which other classes are derived. It serves as the foundation or starting point for creating derived classes, providing common attributes and behaviors that derived classes can inherit.
What is Function Overloading?
Function overloading in C++ is the ability to define multiple functions with the same name but different parameters or argument types. The appropriate function is selected based on the arguments used during the function call.
What is Operator Overloading?
Operator overloading in C++ is the ability to redefine the behavior of built-in operators or create custom operators for user-defined classes. It allows objects to be manipulated using familiar syntax and enables intuitive and concise code.
What is Memory Leak?
A memory leak in C++ occurs when dynamically allocated memory is not properly deallocated or released after it is no longer needed. It leads to a gradual loss of available memory, potentially causing performance issues or program crashes.
What is Dangling Pointer?
A dangling pointer in C++ is a pointer that points to a memory location that has been deallocated or freed. Using a dangling pointer can lead to undefined behavior or unexpected results when attempting to access or modify the memory.
What is Dynamic Memory Allocation?
Dynamic memory allocation in C++ is the process of allocating memory for variables or objects at runtime using special operators such as `new` and `delete`. It allows flexible memory management and the creation of data structures of variable sizes
What is Scope Resolution Operator?
The scope resolution operator (`::`) in C++ is used to access variables, functions, or static members of a class that are defined outside the class scope. It allows disambiguation between similarly named entities in different scopes.
What is composition and Inheritance?
Composition and inheritance are two ways to establish relationships between classes in object-oriented programming. Composition refers to creating objects of one class within another class, while inheritance involves deriving a new class from an existing class. In composition, the relationship is typically a "has-a" relationship, while in inheritance, it is an "is-a" relationship.
What is method overriding?
Method overriding in C++ is the ability of a derived class to provide a different implementation of a virtual function that is already defined in its base class. It allows the derived class to customize or extend the behavior of the base class's function.
What is Method Hiding?
Method hiding in C++ occurs when a derived class defines a function with the same name as a function in its base class, but without using the `virtual` keyword. This hides the base class's function, and the derived class's function is called only when using the derived class's type explicitly.
What is virtual Inheritance?
Virtual inheritance in C++ is used to address the "diamond problem" that can occur in multiple inheritance when a class inherits from two or more classes that have a common base class. Virtual inheritance ensures that only one instance of the common base class is inherited, resolving ambiguity and preventing duplication of inherited members.
What is diamond problem, and how will it be solved?
The diamond problem is a situation in C++ multiple inheritance where a derived class inherits from two or more classes that have a common base class. This can lead to ambiguity and conflicts when accessing members of the common base class. The diamond problem can be resolved using virtual inheritance, which ensures a single instance of the common base class.
What is Late binding?
Late binding, also known as runtime polymorphism, is a feature of C++ that allows a program to determine the appropriate function to call at runtime, based on the actual type of the object rather than the declared type. It enables dynamic dispatch and is achieved using virtual functions and inheritance.
What is the difference between public, private, and protected inheritance?
In C++, public, private, and protected are access specifiers that determine the visibility and accessibility of class members in the derived class. Public inheritance makes public members of the base class public in the derived class, private inheritance makes them private, and protected inheritance makes them protected.
What is the concept of multiple inheritance and how is it implemented?
Multiple inheritance in C++ is a feature that allows a class to inherit from two or more base classes. It enables a class to combine features and behaviors from multiple sources. Multiple inheritance is implemented by specifying multiple base classes separated by commas in the class declaration.
What is the concept of friend classes and friend function?
Friend classes and friend functions in C++ are mechanisms that allow specified classes or functions to access the private and protected members of another class. They are used to provide controlled access to otherwise restricted parts of a class.
Explain the concept of function templates and class templates?
Function templates and class templates in C++ are features that allow the creation of generic functions and classes, respectively. Templates enable writing code that can work with different data types, providing flexibility and code reuse.
What is the concept of dynamic polymorphism?
Dynamic polymorphism in C++ is a feature that allows a program to bind a function call to the appropriate function implementation at runtime. It is achieved through the use of virtual functions and inheritance, enabling flexibility and extensibility in object-oriented programming.
What are virtual base classes and how are they used in multiple inheritance
Virtual base classes in C++ are base classes that are declared as virtual in a derived class that inherits from multiple base classes. Virtual base classes help prevent duplication of the common base class when using multiple inheritance, ensuring that only one instance of the base class is shared among the derived classes.
What is the concept of static polymorphism and how is it achieved?
Static polymorphism in C++ is achieved through function overloading and template specialization. It allows different functions to be selected at compile time based on the types and number of arguments, providing compile-time flexibility and performance optimization.
Explain the concept of object slicing?
Object slicing in C++ occurs when an object of a derived class is assigned to an object of its base class, resulting in the loss of the derived class's additional data members. Only the base class's members are retained, "slicing off" the derived class-specific features.
What is shallow copy and deep copy?
Shallow copying and deep copying refer to different ways of copying objects in C++. Shallow copying copies the values of the data members directly, resulting in two objects sharing the same memory addresses. Deep copying, on the other hand, creates a new copy of the object, including all the dynamically allocated resources, to ensure independent objects.
What is the role of constructors and destructors in object creation and destruction in C++
Constructors in C++ are special member functions that are called when an object is created. They initialize the object's data members and perform any necessary setup. Destructors are special member functions called when an object is destroyed. They clean up resources, release memory, or perform other necessary cleanup tasks.
Explain the concept of type casting and different types of casting available in C++
Type casting in C++ is a way to convert a variable from one type to another. C++ provides several casting operators, including static_cast, dynamic_cast, const_cast, and reinterpret_cast. Each type of cast is used for different purposes, such as converting between related types, casting pointers or references, or removing constness.